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For the purposes of this article, Curtain Call will be our main focus. To begin Susie, what is Curtain Call? SR: Leslie, Curtain Call is a department here at the store that specializes in fabricating custom draperies, pillows, bedding, table skirts, cushions, and a lot of other things.

SR: A person would come in with the idea of what she would like. LW: Ok, so once measurements have been taken, the order placed and fabric selected, can you reveal a little about the production process?

SR: Well, it goes to the workroom, they make it, it comes back. SR: No, no. It would be like going to a tailor and having a suit made for yourself.

Same thing goes with custom draperies. LW: What are some common misconceptions that people have about what you do, or the process here?

Here is my blog; powloki. Also visit my homepage :: teldomains. Feel free to visit my website: stworzwnetrze.

Here is my blog post; okna. Also visit my website lillanails. It states that the Republic of Poland assures freedom of economic activity and that any limitation of this freedom should be based on law.

Similarly, fiscal charges may be imposed only by law. Another important safeguard clause concerning public finance says that an increase of expenditure by the government should not cause an increase of the budget deficit above the level set by the budgetary law, and that the budgetary law should not provide for the financing of the deficit through lending from the central bank.

The president is elected to office by universal suffrage for a 5-year term. He appoints candidates for the post of prime minister and has the right to veto acts passed by parliament.

His veto may be rejected by a three-fifths majority in the sejm, with at least a half of deputies present. The president is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

He has the right to dissolve parliament if it is unable to approve the budgetary law or to form a government. However, in a heated presidential campaign in the autumn of , he lost to Aleksander Kwa niewski, leader of the Democratic Left Alliance, who also won the subsequent presidential elections held in October witnessed another very intense presidential campaign, finally won by Lech Kaczy ski, President of Warsaw and a former Minister of Justice, who assumed the office at the end of the year.

The sejm has deputies elected through a proportional voting system. All senators are elected in a majority voting system.

The senate has the right to initiate legislation, and it reviews and proposes amendments to acts passed by the sejm.

It is ultimately the sejm that decides on the final version of any legislative act. Apart from the sejm deputies and the senate, legislative initiative is also granted to the president, the Council of Ministers, and any group of at least one hundred thousand citizens coming up with a draft law.

The last parliamentary elections were held on 25 September Since then several changes have taken place on the Polish political scene.

The present structure of the sejm as of June is presented in the following diagram. General Information Executive power is vested in the prime minister and his cabinet, called the Council of Ministers, while judicial power is vested in independent courts.

At the very outset of the political and economic transformation process Poland focused its efforts on two major goals: economic integration with the European Community see Chapter VI and NATO membership.

The economic integration process aimed at re-establishing Poland as an integral part of the European economy. NATO membership, ensuring external security, has been achieved even earlier.

The first step in the process of joining NATO had taken place in March , when the military structures of the Warsaw Pact were dissolved.

A mere three months later, in October , in Cracow, the presidents of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary expressed the desire of their states to participate in NATO activities.

Finally, on 17 February , the parliament passed a law allowing President Kwa niewski to ratify the North Atlantic Treaty, which he did on 26 February Government Administration The government administration is composed of the central administration ministries and other bodies and the regional administration.

The administrative division of the country is based on three levels of administration, i. There are 16 provinces, districts, and communes in Poland.

General Information Some major ministries and their main functions, likely to be of interest to foreign investors and businessmen, are listed in the table below.

Ministry Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Ministry of Construction Ministry of the Economy Main Functions Developing and implementing policies regarding agriculture, rural development and the development of agricultural markets.

Directing government administration in the areas of architecture, construction, housing and land management. Initiating and co-ordinating policies regarding economic activity and development, including foreign trade and economic issues, energy policy, tourism, and co-operation with economic business organisations.

Ministry of Education Directing state activities in the field of education, including developing curriculum and social assistance to pupils.

Ministry of the Regulating all issues pertaining to environmental protection and water Environment resources, and particularly, developing and implementing policies concerning air and water protection, the avoidance of land degradation, water management and protection of the population and property against flood and drought.

Ministry of Finance Responsibilities include activities in the area of public finance, state budget development and implementation and financial institutions.

Ministry of Foreign Maintaining diplomatic relations with other countries and international Affairs organisations, representing and protecting the interests of Poland, its citizens and its entities abroad, promotion of Poland and the Polish language abroad, and co-operation with Poles living abroad.

Ministry of Labour and Regulating all issues pertaining to the labour market and work Social Policy conditions, the social security system, social benefits, directing state activities aimed at reducing poverty and at social integration.

Ministry of Regional Developing and implementing regional development policies aimed at Development the acceleration of social and economic development of all regions and at the prevention of a further differentiation between the most and the least developed regions of the country.

Ministry of Transport Developing and implementing state activities in the field of transportation, including transport infrastructure and road safety.

Dismantling of all central economy planning mechanisms and the introduction of a market economy was quick to produce effects.

Inflation, running at three digits in , fell to double digits in , and declined steadily in the following years to fall to as little as 0.

In it reached 2. Still, Poland was the only country in the region to achieve GDP growth in The recovery gained momentum in with a GDP growth rate of 3.

In , GDP grew by 3. Economic Environment To reflect the real degree of development in comparing Polish GDP per capita to that of other countries, overall price levels should be considered and appropriate adjustments made.

The Polish economy entered the s as the weakest in Central Europe. It emerged in the new millennium as one of the strongest.

However, in , the budget deficit doubled in comparison to the previous year and amounted to approximately 4. The next three years did not bring any improvement in this respect.

In , however, the budget deficit decreased to just 2. A breakdown of the state budget in the last two years is presented in the table below.

At the end of , it amounted to Budgetary expenditure in is presented in the following diagram. It is worth noting that foreign debt service expenditure is rather insignificant, amounting to just 1.

Foreign exchange operations are governed by Foreign Exchange Law of 27 July It came into force on 1 October and further liberalised capital exchange.

In line with mandatory EU regulations concerning foreign exchange, the law removed all restrictions in the flow of capital payments between Poland and the EU member states, the European Economic Area, and OECD member states.

Nonetheless, some limitations to capital exchange that are not contrary to the EU mandatory foreign exchange regulations are permitted.

These are defined in art. The limitations focus on capital flows relating to direct investments including investments in real estate , the provision of financial services, and the introduction of securities to capital markets.

The law also contains a provision stating that limitations resulting from other acts supersede the freedom of capital flow arising from the Foreign Exchange Law.

The limitations pertaining to foreign exchange terms and conditions may be abolished through foreign exchange permits.

There are two types of permits: general and individual. General foreign exchange permits are granted by the Minister of Finance, while individual foreign exchange permits are granted by the President of the National Bank of Poland.

Both general and individual permits will be granted if there is no threat to state security, public order, the equilibrated balance of payments, and other basic interests of the state.

An important safeguard mechanism is provided in art. Currently, general exchange permits are granted on the grounds of a decree of the Minister of Finance of 3 September on General Exchange Permits, as amended.

Generally, the decree provides for Polish currency and foreign exchange transfers, by both residents and non-residents exceeding the EUR 10, limit stipulated in the Foreign Exchange Law.

It also lifts various foreign exchange restrictions regarding operations with countries that signed binding agreements with Poland on the reciprocal promotion and protection of investments.

Moreover, Polish residents are allowed to conduct transactions and payments in Poland in euros and other convertible currencies, providing that a consumer is party to the transaction, or payment.

This allows, for example, shops to accept payments in euro and there are already some that do. A recent amendment to this decree came into force on 1 January It allows Polish residents to conduct transactions and payments in euros with regards to funds coming from the European Union budget, as well as those earmarked for co-financing projects implemented using funds coming from the European Union budget.

It increased by approximately just USD 1. The NBP, central and local governments were mainly responsible for this slight increase, while the companies reduced their foreign debt by over USD 2 billion, from USD However, it is not the absolute value of foreign debt, but its relation to other economic indicators that is important for the economy.

These relations are presented on the following diagram. In , the share of government foreign debt amounted to However, reversed this trend.

In , the share of government foreign debt further increased to Employment and the Labour Market Since , the number of unemployed and unemployment rate has been growing, to peak in , mainly as a result of industrial restructuring and structural changes in companies aimed at increasing productivity and competitiveness.

The sharp increase in the unemployment rate resulted from a verification of the economically active population. Since then, the situation on the labour market has been gradually improving.

At the end of the number of registered unemployed persons dropped to 2. The unemployment rate varied significantly from one province to another.

It was lowest in the provinces of Mazowieckie Of the 2. Many of them have acquired good qualifications but cannot find work because the vocational education system has not kept up with the changes in demand for specific professional skills.

The proportion of students in the 16 - 18 age group reached In , the average gross monthly salary in Poland was PLN 2, USD , 4.

Average gross monthly salary in the enterprise sector amounted to PLN 2, It was considerably higher PLN 4, On the other hand, average salaries in the manufacturing sector PLN 2, The relatively low labour costs and easy access to skilled workers are important assets for prospective foreign investors, particularly in regions with industrial traditions.

How to Do Business in Poland 27 Trade unions play a relatively important role both in national politics and at the enterprise level.

In addition to the Solidarity trade union there are also federations of branch trade unions former communist unions.

Trade unions are particularly strong in big, still state-owned enterprises, but they are also active on a regional level. Trade unions tend to present their demands directly to the government.

Nonetheless, Poland was very peaceful socially in In , industry accounted for some The economic transformations have brought progressive modernisation, which is reflected, for example, in growing productivity and exports.

The structure of the Polish economy in , in terms of the number of economic entities by sector, taking form of ownership into account, is presented in the following table.

The figures encompass legal entities, entities with no legal personality, and single-person businesses, excluding branches. At the same time, the private sector, already dominant in foreign trade for several years, was responsible for Similarly, the share of the mining and quarrying sectors remained at 5.

The production of food and related products beverages and tobacco articles occupies the most important place in the Polish processing industry, accounting for over a fifth of total production.

Other important manufacturing sectors are the automotive industry, the chemical industry, the coke and refined petroleum products sector, the electrical engineering industry, and the metalworking industry.

How to Do Business in Poland 29 The year witnessed only a slight growth of industrial output, which increased by an estimated 3.

The private sector accounted for The following table presents the branch structure of Polish industry in Please note that these figures refer to companies employing more than 9 persons, as data covering the entire economy was not available at the time of printing.

Economic Environment In , a very dynamic growth in sales was noted in the following areas: machinery and equipment On the other hand, a decrease in sales was noted in wearing apparel and furriery, and in leather and leather products, just as in the previous year.

Several branches of Polish industry are still undergoing organisational, managerial, and technological transformations based on restructuring programmes.

Most notably such programmes are being implemented in the coal-mining sector, fuel and energy, and defence industries.

In this context, it is worth pointing out that Polish science and technological research, while suffering from under-investment, is still able to produce some very interesting results.

A major problem is the lack of financing necessary to develop this research into commercially viable projects, and this presents yet another opportunity for foreign investors to enter the market and launch successful businesses.

A large number of inventors, research and development companies, universities, and scientific institutions, are members of the Association of Polish Inventors.

The Association supports research activities leading to inventions, promotes Polish inventions in Poland and abroad and protects the rights of inventors.

Investment and co-operation opportunities based on Polish inventions and new technologies can be found in numerous industrial sectors in Poland.

The ones outlined below are just a few. The technology has been developed on a pilot plant scale. Calcipotriol is an active substance of a drug used in dermatology.

Calcipotriol is an antiproliferative and cell differentiating agent for epidermal keratinocytes in some types of psoriasis and other skin disorders.

Calcipotriol is also used in combination with other active substances in treating multiple sclerosis, hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis, symptoms of rheumathitis, acne, skin atrophy, and inflammatory diseases.

In comparison to the commonly used method for the synthesis of calcipotriol, this technology shortens the synthetic route and substantially improves a number of synthetic steps.

An innovative synthesis of the side-chain fragment was also developed, resulting in a synthetic intermediate of high enantiomeric purity. The critical coupling step of both advanced intermediates, vitamin S synthon and a side-chain fragment was developed as a single step procedure, as a concomitant addition and desulfonylation due to the intramolecular rearrangement of the intermediate product.

This way there was no need for sodium amalgam, a desulfonylating agent commonly used in such processes.

A new method for the purification of a crude synthetic product to obtain calcipotriol as an anhydrous substance of high pharmaceutical quality has also been developed.

The key synthetic transformations and methods are subject to four national patent applications: P, P, P, and P This technology won the edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition in the Technology of the Future category.

The project provides an innovative method for recycling of all wastes from chrome leather production. Moreover, it enables the recycling of very complex tannery effluent sludge together with municipal sewage sludge.

This innovative idea results in a thorough purification of effluent water originally bound tightly to the former sludge because of a high pH-value.

All harmful impurities are removed selectively, step-by-step, and transformed into compounds of commercial value. Effluents can be purified to an extent that makes it possible to dump them directly into surface waters or to use them instead of tap water for the preparation of all solutions necessary to run the entire plant.

Economic Environment The installation has been designed as a combination of eight units, bound functionally one to another.

Chromium III is leached from scraps, splits and shavings in the form of strong complexes, followed by precipitation to insoluble hydroxide, which is filtered off, while the complexing agent is recovered.

Filter cake is used for the manufacturing of a tanning agent. Purified collagen, with its original fibrous structure preserved, serves as the starting material either for technical gelatine or for biopolymers, or even organic fertilizers.

Tannery effluent sludge undergoes a different purification process. Extracted species are, in turn, transferred from the organic phase into a concentrated aqueous bisulphate solution, where they are selectively separated due to large differences in solubility.

The recovered catalyst in the organic solution may return to the process. Inorganic salts, either those selectively separated from the effluent water in successive units, or those gained in the bisulphate milieu, undergo a purification process and form valuable products.

This technology won a distinction in the edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition in the Technology of the Future category.

The SKZ haulage system is designed for the transportation of heavy machines, equipment and materials, or men in underground mine workings.

Its special feature is the option of operating on tracks already installed in the mines. In case of inclined track sections, the track is equipped with a rack bar mounted along its axis.

Such a solution enables the transport of heavy loads with no need for reloading, which is less time-consuming and cheaper. The system consists of a diesel locomotive and of a transportation platform of a basic type, a transportation platform for men-riding, or a container platform for transportation of materials.

The straight sections mentioned above can be laid and fixed, using bolting sleepers. Rolling keeps mounted on the axles of braking cars protect the system against loss of stability on large inclinations.

During operation on horizontal sections of the rails, the keeps, whose bottom edges are below the level of the rails heads, are slightly raised, and during operation on inclined sections they are lowered and work in tandem with the rack bar guides.

Using an innovative transportation platform with articulated torsional cars it was possible to compensate for the tilting moment of the construction.

Moreover, the design of articulations was simplified, so the cost of their manufacture was reduced. The new SKZ haulage system eliminates the disadvantages of previous solutions, i.

This product won the edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition in the Product of the Future category.

The ScanBright system is based on the innovative method of structure lighting measurement. This is a full-field, non-contact optical method in which white light fringes are projected on the measured object.

Coordinates of the measured surface are calculated on the basis of images of the fringes deformed on the object.

ScanBright consists of a 3D scanner and a work-station with Mesh3D specialized software. Mesh3D enables the user to control the system as well as to carry out further processing such as advanced operations on clouds of points filtering, merging, simplification , and creating and editing triangle meshes.

The system was designed in such a way as to provide failure-free operation both in a laboratory setting and in the field.

The 3D scanner is equipped with a unique vibration damping mechanism and a backup power system that protects it from detrimental voltage fluctuations.

The system has a comfortable grip and a professional-grade stand with a height range of 0. The ScanBright system is used in a wide range of applications, such as computer aided design and manufacturing, rapid prototyping, reverse engineering production quality assessment , multimedia, cultural heritage archiving, and medical systems.

Thanks to features like its userfriendly operation, mobility, high accuracy, reliable measurements, and high quality of texture reproduction, it has won wide recognition among engineers and artists.

The ScanBright system is the first 3D measurement system that fully integrates accurate noncontact digitalisation of complex 3D objects and the processing of coordinate and texture data.

This method, unlike tactile methods, allows measurement of delicate objects such as human faces or valuable museum exhibit items, while the software comfortably prepares the data for multiple 34 II.

Economic Environment applications. Due to its unique structural solutions the ScanBright system is recognized as one of the few mobile optical 3D measurement systems delivering high accuracy data.

This technology won a distinction in the edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition in the Product of the Future category.

This is a novel technology for the production of ruthenium and iodine ophthalmic applicators. It consists of a method of uniform deposition and fixing of a layer of radioactive isotope on the sliver surface of a spherical plaque, which is then hermetically sealed in acryl.

The shape and dimensions of the obtained acrylic insert are identical, regardless of the radionuclide used, hence allowing the multiple use of expensive and difficult to produce metallic capsules, which are used as holders of the applicators.

The use of an acrylic insert with a uniformly distributed layer of radionuclide resulted in several advantages over products offered by other processes.

Ophthalmic applicators are used for the conservative treatment of intraocular tumours. So far, cases of choroidal melanomas and retinoblastomas have qualified for radical surgery of the eye.

However, the applicators offered on the market are expensive, which limits their therapeutic application. In addition, the other applicator design has some distinct drawbacks, such as a complicated technique of sealing of the radioactive core in the case of ruthenium, or the necessity of placing the miniature radioactive sources of iodine in the spherical part of the acrylic insert, which in turn results in elevated radiation exposure to personnel during the mounting and handling of the applicator.

The new technology was oriented towards eliminating the need to use iodine seed sources and successfully led to the production of applicators with a monolithic radioactive core.

Applicators of ruthenium and iodine with a monolithic radioactive core present a novel and improved construction of much higher quality then other applicators on the market.

In comparison with the technical solutions offered by the competition, the main advantages of the new technology consist in the lowering of production costs, the lowering of radiation exposure of the personnel handling the applicators, and the reduction of the amount of liquid waste during the production process.

For the list of other awarded technologies and contact details of the technology providers, please refer to Appendix The Agency is subordinated to the Minister of the Economy.

The agency is involved in a number of assistance programmes and provides grants for the co-financing of initiatives supporting the development of entrepreneurship, as well as direct support to entrepreneurs.

PARP offers consulting services, facilitates access to know-how, economic information, studies and analyses, and organises informational and promotional events.

The activities of the agency are financed from the state budget and European Union funds. The agency co-operates with a number of local business advisory centres, which are grouped in the National SME Service Network.

Agriculture In Poland, There are some regions where agriculture is still the major sector of the economy, even though its importance has been declining steadily.

The Polish agricultural sector includes farms that vary considerably in terms of organisational structure, ownership, size, and output volume.

In there were 2. The average size of a farm was just 6. The structure of Polish farms in terms of size and number is presented on the following graph.

In , privately owned farmland accounted for approximately Unpredictable weather conditions and the constantly changing profitability of various crops and other produce have resulted in an instability of agricultural production, which is not regulated by quotas.

It is the producer who bears the entire production risk, with only a few crop deliveries being based on supply contracts concluded between producers and food processing plants , e.

Mixed farming with both crop growing and some animal production prevails in most farms in Poland, as a majority lack clearly defined specialisation.

How to Do Business in Poland 37 In , there were According to preliminary estimates, the agricultural output decreased by 2.

The most important crops in Poland are cereals, especially wheat and rye. Next, there are potatoes, fodder crops, sugar beets, oilseeds and pulses.

Pigs and cattle dominate the livestock sector, though poultry, and sheep in southern Poland, are also quite popular.

The basic agricultural output in is presented in the table below. Polish strawberries and excellent apple juice are very well known and popular both in Poland and abroad.

It is important to note that Polish agriculture is characterised by a low use of chemicals.

In , the chemical fertilisers used to grow the crops harvested in that year amounted to Economic Environment Construction Industry The construction sector is regulated by the Construction Law of 7 July as amended and accounts for 5.

The Construction Law regulates professional requirements, professional liability, rights and duties of parties involved in the construction process, the commissioning and maintenance of construction works, and pre-construction issues, including construction permits.

Construction works may only be started upon obtaining a construction permit, which is granted in a form of an administrative decision authorizing the commencement and conducting of construction works.

However, there are numerous exclusions from the permit requirement pertaining to, generally speaking, small-scale construction works.

Assuming the land is zoned for an intended type of investment, the permit may be issued on the grounds of the local land management plan, though not many exist at present.

If there is no local land management plan, a decision on the conditions for site development warunki zabudowy must be obtained first, which is a quite lengthy and challenging process.

Furthermore, in some cases, issuing a decision on the conditions for site development is not possible, due to restrictions imposed by the Spatial Zoning Law of 27 March A construction permit expires, if the construction work has not started within two years from the date it became final.

It also expires if construction work is halted for a period exceeding two years. The output of the construction industry has been increasing significantly since , primarily as a result of foreign investment, and particularly in the industrial, retail and office sectors, although developments financed by Polish capital have also been on the increase.

The following diagram presents the construction output structure current prices in Please note that it is based on data covering companies employing more than 9 persons, as data covering the entire economy was not available at the time of printing.

An increasing average usable floor area since the early s is yet another indicator of economic growth in Poland.

In it amounted to Its main objective is to ensure the stability of prices. Most banks in Poland operate as multipurpose institutions.

They are involved in various types of deposit taking and financing activities, and offer a wide range of commercial and personal banking services.

Some of them are also active on the capital market through their own brokerage houses. Some of the banks are involved in investment banking activities, such as underwriting issues of bonds and stocks, or advisory services.

There are also some mortgage banks and other specialised credit institutions. As of 1 May , branches of foreign banks which have their registered office in a member state of the European Union are considered to be branches of credit institutions, as defined in the Banking Law.

The Commission for Banking Supervision exercises supervision over branches of credit institutions with respect to their maintenance of adequate liquidity.

However, these branches are not subject to the regulations on capital adequacy. At the end of , there were banks operating in Poland. This number included 53 commercial banks in the form of joint-stock companies, one state bank, and co-operative banks.

Furthermore, there were 7 branches of credit institutions. The State Treasury directly owned two banks, with a further two being controlled indirectly.

Head offices of banks excluding co-operative banks and branches of credit institutions operating in Poland are listed in Appendix The co-operative sector, although very important for Polish farmers, does not play a significant role in Polish banking.

By the end of the year co-operative banks granted 7. Their total assets increased during the year by The consolidation process in the co-operative banking sector also continued.

In eight co-operative banks disappeared through mergers. In , the domestic office network of commercial banks excluding head offices and representative offices comprised over 3, branch offices and over 4, other offices sub-branches, customer service outlets, etc.

Moreover, co-operative banks operated almost 1, branch offices and over 1, other offices. The bankcard market is certainly one of the fastest growing segments of new services in Poland.

In , the number of bankcards in use reached almost Polish banks offer all types of bankcards, although debit cards account for some There were To meet the challenges of competition, Polish banks have had to invest heavily in their networks, as well as in automation and information technology.

Commercial banks, as well as some co-operative banks, offer bank services through the internet. Some banks allow their clients to carry out operations via phones, cellular phones using WAP technology, or via teletext.

Moreover, there are some virtual banks operating on the 42 II. Economic Environment market. Their number did not change in the last year.

The modernisation of banks is progressing rapidly. However, huge investments in IT are increasing the costs of their operations significantly.

Even more costly is increasing the quality of consumer service and introducing new banking products.

Nonetheless, the end result is decidedly positive, especially for the clients. In , favourable economic conditions in Poland helped the banking sector to achieve even better financial results than in In fact, from the financial point of view, this was the best year for the banks since the beginning of transformations.

This led to ROE reaching The ratio of banking sector assets to GDP amounted to At the end of , of the 54 commercial banks operating in Poland, 13 were listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, and their share in the WSE capitalisation amounted to It is important to note that competition in the Polish banking sector has been growing rapidly in the past few years.

This is reflected in mergers, as well as in the ever growing involvement of foreign banks. Since the privatisation processes started, foreign shareholders have been steadily increasing their investments in the Polish banking sector.

In , banks controlled by foreign investors accounted for Foreign branches of credit institutions accounted for another 0.

The following diagram presents the ownership structure of the banking sector in Poland as of 31 December At the end of , out of 54 commercial banks operating in Poland, foreign shareholders controlled Moreover, foreign shareholders had minority stakes in a further 3 banks.

Foreign involvement in the banking sector in Poland in terms of country of origin is further illustrated in the following diagram.

Economic Environment In , the consolidation processes continued, resulting in the disappearance of two banks. These, however, were merely transformed to became a part of the newly opened branches of credit institutions.

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Government Administration The government administration is composed of the central administration ministries and other bodies and the regional administration.

The administrative division of the country is based on three levels of administration, i. There are 16 provinces, districts, and communes in Poland.

General Information Some major ministries and their main functions, likely to be of interest to foreign investors and businessmen, are listed in the table below.

Ministry Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Ministry of Construction Ministry of the Economy Main Functions Developing and implementing policies regarding agriculture, rural development and the development of agricultural markets.

Directing government administration in the areas of architecture, construction, housing and land management.

Initiating and co-ordinating policies regarding economic activity and development, including foreign trade and economic issues, energy policy, tourism, and co-operation with economic business organisations.

Ministry of Education Directing state activities in the field of education, including developing curriculum and social assistance to pupils.

Ministry of the Regulating all issues pertaining to environmental protection and water Environment resources, and particularly, developing and implementing policies concerning air and water protection, the avoidance of land degradation, water management and protection of the population and property against flood and drought.

Ministry of Finance Responsibilities include activities in the area of public finance, state budget development and implementation and financial institutions.

Ministry of Foreign Maintaining diplomatic relations with other countries and international Affairs organisations, representing and protecting the interests of Poland, its citizens and its entities abroad, promotion of Poland and the Polish language abroad, and co-operation with Poles living abroad.

Ministry of Labour and Regulating all issues pertaining to the labour market and work Social Policy conditions, the social security system, social benefits, directing state activities aimed at reducing poverty and at social integration.

Ministry of Regional Developing and implementing regional development policies aimed at Development the acceleration of social and economic development of all regions and at the prevention of a further differentiation between the most and the least developed regions of the country.

Ministry of Transport Developing and implementing state activities in the field of transportation, including transport infrastructure and road safety.

Dismantling of all central economy planning mechanisms and the introduction of a market economy was quick to produce effects. Inflation, running at three digits in , fell to double digits in , and declined steadily in the following years to fall to as little as 0.

In it reached 2. Still, Poland was the only country in the region to achieve GDP growth in The recovery gained momentum in with a GDP growth rate of 3.

In , GDP grew by 3. Economic Environment To reflect the real degree of development in comparing Polish GDP per capita to that of other countries, overall price levels should be considered and appropriate adjustments made.

The Polish economy entered the s as the weakest in Central Europe. It emerged in the new millennium as one of the strongest.

However, in , the budget deficit doubled in comparison to the previous year and amounted to approximately 4.

The next three years did not bring any improvement in this respect. In , however, the budget deficit decreased to just 2. A breakdown of the state budget in the last two years is presented in the table below.

At the end of , it amounted to Budgetary expenditure in is presented in the following diagram. It is worth noting that foreign debt service expenditure is rather insignificant, amounting to just 1.

Foreign exchange operations are governed by Foreign Exchange Law of 27 July It came into force on 1 October and further liberalised capital exchange.

In line with mandatory EU regulations concerning foreign exchange, the law removed all restrictions in the flow of capital payments between Poland and the EU member states, the European Economic Area, and OECD member states.

Nonetheless, some limitations to capital exchange that are not contrary to the EU mandatory foreign exchange regulations are permitted.

These are defined in art. The limitations focus on capital flows relating to direct investments including investments in real estate , the provision of financial services, and the introduction of securities to capital markets.

The law also contains a provision stating that limitations resulting from other acts supersede the freedom of capital flow arising from the Foreign Exchange Law.

The limitations pertaining to foreign exchange terms and conditions may be abolished through foreign exchange permits. There are two types of permits: general and individual.

General foreign exchange permits are granted by the Minister of Finance, while individual foreign exchange permits are granted by the President of the National Bank of Poland.

Both general and individual permits will be granted if there is no threat to state security, public order, the equilibrated balance of payments, and other basic interests of the state.

An important safeguard mechanism is provided in art. Currently, general exchange permits are granted on the grounds of a decree of the Minister of Finance of 3 September on General Exchange Permits, as amended.

Generally, the decree provides for Polish currency and foreign exchange transfers, by both residents and non-residents exceeding the EUR 10, limit stipulated in the Foreign Exchange Law.

It also lifts various foreign exchange restrictions regarding operations with countries that signed binding agreements with Poland on the reciprocal promotion and protection of investments.

Moreover, Polish residents are allowed to conduct transactions and payments in Poland in euros and other convertible currencies, providing that a consumer is party to the transaction, or payment.

This allows, for example, shops to accept payments in euro and there are already some that do. A recent amendment to this decree came into force on 1 January It allows Polish residents to conduct transactions and payments in euros with regards to funds coming from the European Union budget, as well as those earmarked for co-financing projects implemented using funds coming from the European Union budget.

It increased by approximately just USD 1. The NBP, central and local governments were mainly responsible for this slight increase, while the companies reduced their foreign debt by over USD 2 billion, from USD However, it is not the absolute value of foreign debt, but its relation to other economic indicators that is important for the economy.

These relations are presented on the following diagram. In , the share of government foreign debt amounted to However, reversed this trend.

In , the share of government foreign debt further increased to Employment and the Labour Market Since , the number of unemployed and unemployment rate has been growing, to peak in , mainly as a result of industrial restructuring and structural changes in companies aimed at increasing productivity and competitiveness.

The sharp increase in the unemployment rate resulted from a verification of the economically active population. Since then, the situation on the labour market has been gradually improving.

At the end of the number of registered unemployed persons dropped to 2. The unemployment rate varied significantly from one province to another.

It was lowest in the provinces of Mazowieckie Of the 2. Many of them have acquired good qualifications but cannot find work because the vocational education system has not kept up with the changes in demand for specific professional skills.

The proportion of students in the 16 - 18 age group reached In , the average gross monthly salary in Poland was PLN 2, USD , 4.

Average gross monthly salary in the enterprise sector amounted to PLN 2, It was considerably higher PLN 4, On the other hand, average salaries in the manufacturing sector PLN 2, The relatively low labour costs and easy access to skilled workers are important assets for prospective foreign investors, particularly in regions with industrial traditions.

How to Do Business in Poland 27 Trade unions play a relatively important role both in national politics and at the enterprise level.

In addition to the Solidarity trade union there are also federations of branch trade unions former communist unions.

Trade unions are particularly strong in big, still state-owned enterprises, but they are also active on a regional level.

Trade unions tend to present their demands directly to the government. Nonetheless, Poland was very peaceful socially in In , industry accounted for some The economic transformations have brought progressive modernisation, which is reflected, for example, in growing productivity and exports.

The structure of the Polish economy in , in terms of the number of economic entities by sector, taking form of ownership into account, is presented in the following table.

The figures encompass legal entities, entities with no legal personality, and single-person businesses, excluding branches.

At the same time, the private sector, already dominant in foreign trade for several years, was responsible for Similarly, the share of the mining and quarrying sectors remained at 5.

The production of food and related products beverages and tobacco articles occupies the most important place in the Polish processing industry, accounting for over a fifth of total production.

Other important manufacturing sectors are the automotive industry, the chemical industry, the coke and refined petroleum products sector, the electrical engineering industry, and the metalworking industry.

How to Do Business in Poland 29 The year witnessed only a slight growth of industrial output, which increased by an estimated 3. The private sector accounted for The following table presents the branch structure of Polish industry in Please note that these figures refer to companies employing more than 9 persons, as data covering the entire economy was not available at the time of printing.

Economic Environment In , a very dynamic growth in sales was noted in the following areas: machinery and equipment On the other hand, a decrease in sales was noted in wearing apparel and furriery, and in leather and leather products, just as in the previous year.

Several branches of Polish industry are still undergoing organisational, managerial, and technological transformations based on restructuring programmes.

Most notably such programmes are being implemented in the coal-mining sector, fuel and energy, and defence industries.

In this context, it is worth pointing out that Polish science and technological research, while suffering from under-investment, is still able to produce some very interesting results.

A major problem is the lack of financing necessary to develop this research into commercially viable projects, and this presents yet another opportunity for foreign investors to enter the market and launch successful businesses.

A large number of inventors, research and development companies, universities, and scientific institutions, are members of the Association of Polish Inventors.

The Association supports research activities leading to inventions, promotes Polish inventions in Poland and abroad and protects the rights of inventors.

Investment and co-operation opportunities based on Polish inventions and new technologies can be found in numerous industrial sectors in Poland.

The ones outlined below are just a few. The technology has been developed on a pilot plant scale. Calcipotriol is an active substance of a drug used in dermatology.

Calcipotriol is an antiproliferative and cell differentiating agent for epidermal keratinocytes in some types of psoriasis and other skin disorders.

Calcipotriol is also used in combination with other active substances in treating multiple sclerosis, hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis, symptoms of rheumathitis, acne, skin atrophy, and inflammatory diseases.

In comparison to the commonly used method for the synthesis of calcipotriol, this technology shortens the synthetic route and substantially improves a number of synthetic steps.

An innovative synthesis of the side-chain fragment was also developed, resulting in a synthetic intermediate of high enantiomeric purity.

The critical coupling step of both advanced intermediates, vitamin S synthon and a side-chain fragment was developed as a single step procedure, as a concomitant addition and desulfonylation due to the intramolecular rearrangement of the intermediate product.

This way there was no need for sodium amalgam, a desulfonylating agent commonly used in such processes.

A new method for the purification of a crude synthetic product to obtain calcipotriol as an anhydrous substance of high pharmaceutical quality has also been developed.

The key synthetic transformations and methods are subject to four national patent applications: P, P, P, and P This technology won the edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition in the Technology of the Future category.

The project provides an innovative method for recycling of all wastes from chrome leather production. Moreover, it enables the recycling of very complex tannery effluent sludge together with municipal sewage sludge.

This innovative idea results in a thorough purification of effluent water originally bound tightly to the former sludge because of a high pH-value.

All harmful impurities are removed selectively, step-by-step, and transformed into compounds of commercial value.

Effluents can be purified to an extent that makes it possible to dump them directly into surface waters or to use them instead of tap water for the preparation of all solutions necessary to run the entire plant.

Economic Environment The installation has been designed as a combination of eight units, bound functionally one to another.

Chromium III is leached from scraps, splits and shavings in the form of strong complexes, followed by precipitation to insoluble hydroxide, which is filtered off, while the complexing agent is recovered.

Filter cake is used for the manufacturing of a tanning agent. Purified collagen, with its original fibrous structure preserved, serves as the starting material either for technical gelatine or for biopolymers, or even organic fertilizers.

Tannery effluent sludge undergoes a different purification process. Extracted species are, in turn, transferred from the organic phase into a concentrated aqueous bisulphate solution, where they are selectively separated due to large differences in solubility.

The recovered catalyst in the organic solution may return to the process. Inorganic salts, either those selectively separated from the effluent water in successive units, or those gained in the bisulphate milieu, undergo a purification process and form valuable products.

This technology won a distinction in the edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition in the Technology of the Future category.

The SKZ haulage system is designed for the transportation of heavy machines, equipment and materials, or men in underground mine workings.

Its special feature is the option of operating on tracks already installed in the mines. In case of inclined track sections, the track is equipped with a rack bar mounted along its axis.

Such a solution enables the transport of heavy loads with no need for reloading, which is less time-consuming and cheaper.

The system consists of a diesel locomotive and of a transportation platform of a basic type, a transportation platform for men-riding, or a container platform for transportation of materials.

The straight sections mentioned above can be laid and fixed, using bolting sleepers. Rolling keeps mounted on the axles of braking cars protect the system against loss of stability on large inclinations.

During operation on horizontal sections of the rails, the keeps, whose bottom edges are below the level of the rails heads, are slightly raised, and during operation on inclined sections they are lowered and work in tandem with the rack bar guides.

Using an innovative transportation platform with articulated torsional cars it was possible to compensate for the tilting moment of the construction.

Moreover, the design of articulations was simplified, so the cost of their manufacture was reduced. The new SKZ haulage system eliminates the disadvantages of previous solutions, i.

This product won the edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition in the Product of the Future category.

The ScanBright system is based on the innovative method of structure lighting measurement. This is a full-field, non-contact optical method in which white light fringes are projected on the measured object.

Coordinates of the measured surface are calculated on the basis of images of the fringes deformed on the object.

ScanBright consists of a 3D scanner and a work-station with Mesh3D specialized software. Mesh3D enables the user to control the system as well as to carry out further processing such as advanced operations on clouds of points filtering, merging, simplification , and creating and editing triangle meshes.

The system was designed in such a way as to provide failure-free operation both in a laboratory setting and in the field.

The 3D scanner is equipped with a unique vibration damping mechanism and a backup power system that protects it from detrimental voltage fluctuations.

The system has a comfortable grip and a professional-grade stand with a height range of 0. The ScanBright system is used in a wide range of applications, such as computer aided design and manufacturing, rapid prototyping, reverse engineering production quality assessment , multimedia, cultural heritage archiving, and medical systems.

Thanks to features like its userfriendly operation, mobility, high accuracy, reliable measurements, and high quality of texture reproduction, it has won wide recognition among engineers and artists.

The ScanBright system is the first 3D measurement system that fully integrates accurate noncontact digitalisation of complex 3D objects and the processing of coordinate and texture data.

This method, unlike tactile methods, allows measurement of delicate objects such as human faces or valuable museum exhibit items, while the software comfortably prepares the data for multiple 34 II.

Economic Environment applications. Due to its unique structural solutions the ScanBright system is recognized as one of the few mobile optical 3D measurement systems delivering high accuracy data.

This technology won a distinction in the edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition in the Product of the Future category.

This is a novel technology for the production of ruthenium and iodine ophthalmic applicators. It consists of a method of uniform deposition and fixing of a layer of radioactive isotope on the sliver surface of a spherical plaque, which is then hermetically sealed in acryl.

The shape and dimensions of the obtained acrylic insert are identical, regardless of the radionuclide used, hence allowing the multiple use of expensive and difficult to produce metallic capsules, which are used as holders of the applicators.

The use of an acrylic insert with a uniformly distributed layer of radionuclide resulted in several advantages over products offered by other processes.

Ophthalmic applicators are used for the conservative treatment of intraocular tumours. So far, cases of choroidal melanomas and retinoblastomas have qualified for radical surgery of the eye.

However, the applicators offered on the market are expensive, which limits their therapeutic application.

In addition, the other applicator design has some distinct drawbacks, such as a complicated technique of sealing of the radioactive core in the case of ruthenium, or the necessity of placing the miniature radioactive sources of iodine in the spherical part of the acrylic insert, which in turn results in elevated radiation exposure to personnel during the mounting and handling of the applicator.

The new technology was oriented towards eliminating the need to use iodine seed sources and successfully led to the production of applicators with a monolithic radioactive core.

Applicators of ruthenium and iodine with a monolithic radioactive core present a novel and improved construction of much higher quality then other applicators on the market.

In comparison with the technical solutions offered by the competition, the main advantages of the new technology consist in the lowering of production costs, the lowering of radiation exposure of the personnel handling the applicators, and the reduction of the amount of liquid waste during the production process.

For the list of other awarded technologies and contact details of the technology providers, please refer to Appendix The Agency is subordinated to the Minister of the Economy.

The agency is involved in a number of assistance programmes and provides grants for the co-financing of initiatives supporting the development of entrepreneurship, as well as direct support to entrepreneurs.

PARP offers consulting services, facilitates access to know-how, economic information, studies and analyses, and organises informational and promotional events.

The activities of the agency are financed from the state budget and European Union funds. The agency co-operates with a number of local business advisory centres, which are grouped in the National SME Service Network.

Agriculture In Poland, There are some regions where agriculture is still the major sector of the economy, even though its importance has been declining steadily.

The Polish agricultural sector includes farms that vary considerably in terms of organisational structure, ownership, size, and output volume.

In there were 2. The average size of a farm was just 6. The structure of Polish farms in terms of size and number is presented on the following graph.

In , privately owned farmland accounted for approximately Unpredictable weather conditions and the constantly changing profitability of various crops and other produce have resulted in an instability of agricultural production, which is not regulated by quotas.

It is the producer who bears the entire production risk, with only a few crop deliveries being based on supply contracts concluded between producers and food processing plants , e.

Mixed farming with both crop growing and some animal production prevails in most farms in Poland, as a majority lack clearly defined specialisation.

How to Do Business in Poland 37 In , there were According to preliminary estimates, the agricultural output decreased by 2. The most important crops in Poland are cereals, especially wheat and rye.

Next, there are potatoes, fodder crops, sugar beets, oilseeds and pulses. Pigs and cattle dominate the livestock sector, though poultry, and sheep in southern Poland, are also quite popular.

The basic agricultural output in is presented in the table below. Polish strawberries and excellent apple juice are very well known and popular both in Poland and abroad.

It is important to note that Polish agriculture is characterised by a low use of chemicals. In , the chemical fertilisers used to grow the crops harvested in that year amounted to Economic Environment Construction Industry The construction sector is regulated by the Construction Law of 7 July as amended and accounts for 5.

The Construction Law regulates professional requirements, professional liability, rights and duties of parties involved in the construction process, the commissioning and maintenance of construction works, and pre-construction issues, including construction permits.

Construction works may only be started upon obtaining a construction permit, which is granted in a form of an administrative decision authorizing the commencement and conducting of construction works.

However, there are numerous exclusions from the permit requirement pertaining to, generally speaking, small-scale construction works.

Assuming the land is zoned for an intended type of investment, the permit may be issued on the grounds of the local land management plan, though not many exist at present.

If there is no local land management plan, a decision on the conditions for site development warunki zabudowy must be obtained first, which is a quite lengthy and challenging process.

Furthermore, in some cases, issuing a decision on the conditions for site development is not possible, due to restrictions imposed by the Spatial Zoning Law of 27 March A construction permit expires, if the construction work has not started within two years from the date it became final.

It also expires if construction work is halted for a period exceeding two years. The output of the construction industry has been increasing significantly since , primarily as a result of foreign investment, and particularly in the industrial, retail and office sectors, although developments financed by Polish capital have also been on the increase.

The following diagram presents the construction output structure current prices in Please note that it is based on data covering companies employing more than 9 persons, as data covering the entire economy was not available at the time of printing.

An increasing average usable floor area since the early s is yet another indicator of economic growth in Poland.

In it amounted to Its main objective is to ensure the stability of prices. Most banks in Poland operate as multipurpose institutions.

They are involved in various types of deposit taking and financing activities, and offer a wide range of commercial and personal banking services.

Some of them are also active on the capital market through their own brokerage houses. Some of the banks are involved in investment banking activities, such as underwriting issues of bonds and stocks, or advisory services.

There are also some mortgage banks and other specialised credit institutions. As of 1 May , branches of foreign banks which have their registered office in a member state of the European Union are considered to be branches of credit institutions, as defined in the Banking Law.

The Commission for Banking Supervision exercises supervision over branches of credit institutions with respect to their maintenance of adequate liquidity.

However, these branches are not subject to the regulations on capital adequacy. At the end of , there were banks operating in Poland.

This number included 53 commercial banks in the form of joint-stock companies, one state bank, and co-operative banks. Furthermore, there were 7 branches of credit institutions.

The State Treasury directly owned two banks, with a further two being controlled indirectly.

Head offices of banks excluding co-operative banks and branches of credit institutions operating in Poland are listed in Appendix The co-operative sector, although very important for Polish farmers, does not play a significant role in Polish banking.

By the end of the year co-operative banks granted 7. Their total assets increased during the year by The consolidation process in the co-operative banking sector also continued.

In eight co-operative banks disappeared through mergers. In , the domestic office network of commercial banks excluding head offices and representative offices comprised over 3, branch offices and over 4, other offices sub-branches, customer service outlets, etc.

Moreover, co-operative banks operated almost 1, branch offices and over 1, other offices. The bankcard market is certainly one of the fastest growing segments of new services in Poland.

In , the number of bankcards in use reached almost Polish banks offer all types of bankcards, although debit cards account for some There were To meet the challenges of competition, Polish banks have had to invest heavily in their networks, as well as in automation and information technology.

Commercial banks, as well as some co-operative banks, offer bank services through the internet. Some banks allow their clients to carry out operations via phones, cellular phones using WAP technology, or via teletext.

Moreover, there are some virtual banks operating on the 42 II. Economic Environment market. Their number did not change in the last year. The modernisation of banks is progressing rapidly.

However, huge investments in IT are increasing the costs of their operations significantly. Even more costly is increasing the quality of consumer service and introducing new banking products.

Nonetheless, the end result is decidedly positive, especially for the clients. In , favourable economic conditions in Poland helped the banking sector to achieve even better financial results than in In fact, from the financial point of view, this was the best year for the banks since the beginning of transformations.

This led to ROE reaching The ratio of banking sector assets to GDP amounted to At the end of , of the 54 commercial banks operating in Poland, 13 were listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, and their share in the WSE capitalisation amounted to It is important to note that competition in the Polish banking sector has been growing rapidly in the past few years.

This is reflected in mergers, as well as in the ever growing involvement of foreign banks. Since the privatisation processes started, foreign shareholders have been steadily increasing their investments in the Polish banking sector.

In , banks controlled by foreign investors accounted for Foreign branches of credit institutions accounted for another 0.

The following diagram presents the ownership structure of the banking sector in Poland as of 31 December At the end of , out of 54 commercial banks operating in Poland, foreign shareholders controlled Moreover, foreign shareholders had minority stakes in a further 3 banks.

Foreign involvement in the banking sector in Poland in terms of country of origin is further illustrated in the following diagram. Economic Environment In , the consolidation processes continued, resulting in the disappearance of two banks.

These, however, were merely transformed to became a part of the newly opened branches of credit institutions. Two banks Cetelem Bank Polska S.

As of 1 May this protection refers to banks covered by the Polish deposit insurance system. Moreover, the NBP protects savings in those banks by strict supervision and by imposing receivership management in case of financial problems.

Ranking of Banks by Balance Sheet Total as of Bank Pekao S. Bank BPH S. ING Bank l ski S. BRE Bank S.

Bank Handlowy S. Bank Millennium S. Kredyt Bank S. These are listed in Appendix Insurance and reinsurance services may be provided only after the approval of the KNUiFE, which grants an insurance licence and also has the power to revoke it.

Its scope of activity also includes supervision over insurance mediation, pension funds, and employee pension plans. The only legal forms permitted for conducting insurance activity are the joint-stock company and the mutual insurance company.

Insurance companies are obliged to distinguish between life insurance and other types of insurance and can not engage in any other form of economic activity.

Out of 68 operating insurance companies, 32 were insurers licensed to run life insurance businesses, including two mutual insurance societies.

A further 36 were licensed to render non-life insurance services, the number including seven mutual insurance societies and one main branch of a foreign insurance company.

In two companies, PZU S. Initially, membership was voluntary; however, since , PIU membership has been obligatory. In there were over 35 thousand registered insurance agents in Poland.

Number of companies Number of Insurance Companies 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 64 50 25 38 41 72 74 78 69 72 71 54 30 Source: KNUiFE, In , the market was still dominated by the PZU S.

The industry remains heavily concentrated. In terms of gross written premium, two companies PZU S. None of their competitors managed to secure more than 6.

The situation is not much different in the life insurance market. Sign Up. Search by category. Fabric Trim. Comment viewing options Flat list - collapsed Flat list - expanded Threaded list - collapsed Threaded list - expanded.

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Lewis and Sheron Textiles.

1 thoughts on “KГ¶ln 5066

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